The Night Templars aim with this site is that, based on reliable sources, information about our origin and thereby also dispel some myths and heresies of the Knights Templar.
Order's statutes and rituals based on original documents and texts such as:
• La Regle , Knights of the Order Regula authored in Troyes in 1128 by Saint Bernard of Clairvaux and approved by Pope Honorius II.
• La Charte de transmission , issued in 1324 by
Grand Master F. Jaean -Marc Larmenius.
• Statuts des Chevaliers de l' Ordre du Temple , adopted by the General Convention of Versailles in 1705.
• Statuts des Chevaliers , revised in 1946.
The knightly ideals espoused by the Knights Order's founding and early development of the liver in large part remains, but has subsequently been adapted to today's society.
Knights Order's motto since the the 12th century
Non Nobis, Domine, non nobis, sed nomini tuo de gloriam
"Not to us, Lord, not to us, but to your name give glory"
The Bible , Psalms, Psalm 115
The eight Knight virtues
• Honour and Glory - Those that thirsts for righteousness
• Helpfulness towards the poor and the sick - The merciful
• Reverence for the Church - The Pure in Heart
• Contempt of Death - Those who are persecuted
• Devotion - The peacemakers
• Bravery - Those who mourn
• Generosity - The humble
• Faithfulness - The poor in spirit
Knight Templars history
Our words of Christ and Solomon's temple toast was formed in 1118 or the year after Hugo of Payens , Godfrey of Saint-Omer and seven other knights. The background was that after the Jerusalem återövrats 1099 during the First Crusade, the number of pilgrims who wished to visit those they called the holy sites. While the city of Jerusalem was under relatively secure control was not the rest of the Outremer or the Holy Land it. There were countless robbers and pilgrims were slaughtered, sometimes by the hundreds as they tried to make the journey between the port city of Jaffa and the Holy Land.
1120 got Hugues de Payne preference for King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem. The Payne proposed the creation of a religious order of knights whose task is to protect these pilgrims. King Baldwin and Patriarch Warmund accept the proposal and awarded the new words a wing of the Royal Palace on the Temple Mount, in the captured Al Aqsa Mosque. The Temple Mount had its own mystique because it lay on top of what we thought were the ruins of King Solomons temple, hence the name of Christ and Solomon's temple toast. And the words were poor and depended on donations to survive symbol of two knights on a horse would emphasize the words poverty.
Knights of the Order of poverty did not last long. It had a powerful advocate in Saint Bernard of Clairvaux who had a leading position in the church and was the nephew of one of the founders of the Knights Templar, André de Montbard. Bernhard shored words powerfully and 1129, at the council of Troyes, he led a group of prominent priests who officially endorsed the words of the name of the Church. Through this formal blessing became the Knights Templar a favored items for charity in the form of money, land, businesses, and noble sons from families eager to support the fight for the Holy Land. In 1139 received the words another big benefit when Pope Innocent II in a papal bull exempting words from obeying the local laws. This meant that the Templars could pass freely through all borders, did not have to pay taxes and were exempt all sovereignty except the Pope.
Through its clear mission and ample resources grew words quickly. The knights constituted often at the vanguard of important battles during the Crusades, as the knights in their heavy armor on their steeds could quickly break through enemy lines. One of their most famous victories came at the Battle of Montgisard 1177 where 500 Templar, supported by infantry defeated Saladin's army of over 26 000 men.
Although the Order's main task was military contingent were relatively few of the members warring. The others constituted support for the Knights, and took care of the financial infrastructure. Knights Templar were, even though the individual members had completed their vow of poverty, control of wealth beyond mere donations. A nobleman who was interested in participating in a crusade could place all his assets under the Knights of the Order management while he was away. By increasing their wealth in this way in both Christianity as Outremer words began in 1150 to issue letters of credit for pilgrims traveling to the Holy Land. Pilgrims deposited their valuables with one of the Knights of the Order of local administrations (preceptorier) before departure, received a document indicating the value of their deposit and used this document to get their money when they came to the Holy Land. This innovative arrangement was an early form of banking services and the improved safety of the pilgrims as they became less attractive to thieves while it filled the Order's coffers.
Using this mix of donations and business transactions established the Templars a financial network throughout the Christian world. They acquired large tracts of land, both in Europe and the Middle East; they bought ran farms and vineyards; they built churches and castles; they were involved in the manufacture, export and import; they had their own fleet and for a period they owned the whole of Cyprus. Knights Templar can arguably be said to be the world's first multinational companies.
In the mid 1100s, the fortunes of war began to turn against the Crusades. The Muslim world had reached a higher degree of unity under competent leaders like Saladin and disagreements arose between the different Christian views in and around the Holy Land. Templars were also to and from the conflict with two of the other military orders, Hospital Erna and German words and decades of internal divisions weakened the Christian position, both politically and militarily. After a number of unsuccessful campaigns in which the Templars took part, including the Battle of Hattins horn, conquered Jerusalem by Saladin's forces 1187. Crusaders regained Jerusalem in 1229, but without the support of the Templars, but the city was held only for a short time before it was recaptured by the Turks 1244.
Templars were forced to regroup their headquarters to other cities to the north such as the port city of Acre, which they held throughout the next century. Acre was lost in 1291 with the last of their fortifications on the mainland. The loss of Acre was a stinging loss to the Knights Templar, but also for the whole of Christianity, and many felt that the loss was the Templar wrong. Order's headquarters were moved to Limassol in Cyprus and perpetuate the small island of Arwad. In 1300 tried the Templars along with the Mongols implement a coordinated operation against the Muslims from Arwad. In 1302, however, lost the words Arwad to Mamluks and thus their last foothold in the Holy Land.
Then the Knights Order's military tasks decreased in importance even dropped support for the words. The situation was complicated because the words during almost 200 years had become a part of daily life in Christianity. Orden tempelhus, scattered in hundreds of Europe and the Near East, gave it a wide spread at a local level. Templars continued their very purposes of a business and many Europeans had daily contact with the Order's network, for example by working on one of the Order's farms or vineyards or by using words such as banking. The words were still not subject to local rulers which everywhere made it a state within the state. Its standing army could still pass all borders unhindered despite the fact that it no longer had a clearly defined mission. This situation raised the tension towards some European states, especially as the Templars showed interest to found their own state in common with the Teutonic Knights had done in Prussia and Hospital Erna / St John in Rhodes.
Arrests , charges and dissolution
In 1305 wrote the new Pope Clement V both to the Knights of the Order Grand Master Jacques de Molay and Hospital Servers Dens Grand Master Fulk de Villaret because he wanted to discuss the possibility of merging the two orders. None of them were in favor of the proposal but the Pope persisted, and in 1306 he invited both Grand Masters to France to discuss the matter. De Molay arrived early in 1307 but the Villaret was delayed for several months. While they waited, they discussed Molay and Clement accusations of crimes that would have been made two years earlier by an excluded knight. These allegations had been raised by the King of France and his ministers. It was generally agreed that the allegations were false, but Clement sent yet a written request to Philip IV (also known as the Handsome ) for help with the investigation. According to some historians decided Philip IV, who already had large debts to the Knights Templar, to act against the words in order to be able to free themselves from their debts. Recent studies also emphasize the French king's political and religious motives. It seems that by "discovering" and suppress the Temple men's heresy would dynasty Capet able to claim to possess the foundation of the papal theocracy. The case of the Templars would be the last step to seize this ground, which had begun during the conflict with Pope Boniface VIII. By being the ultimate defender of the Catholic faith, would the French king surrounded with a Christ-like aura that placed him above the Pope. It was at stake in the trial of the Temple men's words was the creation of a royal theocracy. At a stroke, could Philip IV become debt free as well as the most powerful ruler in Christianity.
Friday, October 13, 1307 ordered Philip IV that de Molay and a large number of French knights templar would be arrested . Templars were accused of several crimes including apostasy, idolatry, heresy, obscene rituals and homosexuality, financial corruption, deception and secrecy. Many of the accused confessed after being tortured and these confessions produced scandal in Paris, even if they had been paid by torture. All interviews were recorded on a 30 meter long parchment.
Pope Clement yielded to Philip's requirement to issue a Papal Bull November 22, 1307. In the ordered all Christian monarchs to arrest all the temples men and seize their assets. Clement ordered on Pope hearings to determine temple men's guilt or innocence. Once they had been freed from the Inquisition torture took many temples men back their confessions. In 1310 blocked though King Philip this by using the previously forced confessions as evidence to burn dozens of temples men at the stake.
When Philip IV threatened military action unless the Pope complied with his wishes, was Pope Clement V to dissolve words, motivating this by the scandal that had arisen in connection with the confessions. At the Church Council of Vienne in 1312 he had to issue a number of papal bulls, including Vox in these excelso which formally disbanded words and Ad providam, which left over most of the Order's assets to Hospitalerorden.
What happened to the leaders of the Temple men's words? The aged Grand Master Jacques de Molay who had confessed after torture, withdrew his confession as preceptorn Normandy who insisted that he was innocent. Both were found guilty of being relapsed heretics, and they were sentenced to be burned alive at the stake in Paris 18 mars 1314. Prior de Molay regained his confession, he had been offered a life sentence in a castle under relatively good conditions. De Molay was said to be defiant to the very end, asking to be tied up so that he could stand facing the Notre Dame with her hands clasped in prayer. According to legend, he should have shouted from the flames that both Clement V and Philip IV would soon meet him before God. Clement V died only a month later, and King Philip died in a hunting accident before the year was over.
When the last of the Order's leadership was gone, the remaining Templars in Europe were either arrested and legally tested in the Papal investigation (with virtually no dropped ), were included in other orders as Hospital engines or pensioned and allowed to live out their remaining days in peace. By papal decree transferred the Knights Order's possessions to Hospitalerorden which also incorporated many temples men in their order. In practice, the dissolution of the Knights Templar as a form of merger of the two rival orders. Hospitalerorden continued its activities, and became known as the Order of Malta. Some of the Templars fled to areas outside the papal scrutiny Scotland and Switzerland. One theory is that it was these temples men who organized and trained the Swiss to the dreaded soldiers they were in the Middle Ages and later. Knights Templar in Portugal simply changed its name to Christ's knights.
In September 2001, a document known as Chinonpergamentet, dated August 17 to 20 1308 in the Vatican's secret archives of Professor Barbara Frale. It was obvious that the document filed in the wrong place in 1628. This is a transcript of the Temple men's trial and shows that Clement wooed Templars of heresy, as well as another Chino parchment from 20 August 1308. This was addressed to Philip IV which said that all the temples men who had recognized heresy had been returned to the sacrament and the church's captivity. This second Chino Parchment has been well known to historians having been published both in 1693 as 1751.
The Roman Catholic Church's current position is that the persecution of the Knights Templar was unjust, there was nothing fundamentally wrong with the words nor its rules and that Pope Clement V was forced to take action due to the great scandal and by King Philip IV es dominant influence and Moreover, he also was related to Clement.
For further information please read Karl-Axel Norberg's essay on Chinonpergamentet .
Knights Templar were organized as a religious order like St. Bernard Cistercianerorden, which was considered the first effective international organization in Europe. The structure had a strong authoritarian leadership. Each country had a strong presence of the knights templar (France, England, Aragon, Portugal, Poitou, Apulia, Jerusalem, Tripoli, Antioch, Anjou, Hungary and Croatia had a word masters words in that region. All were subject to the Grand Master, appointed for life. latter oversaw both the military operations in the east as the financial assets in the West.
There are no accurate figures on the number of words, but at most the number is estimated at between 15 000 and 20 000 temples men of whom about a tenth were knights.
There was a threefold division of the degrees in the Knights Templar; the noble knights, the non- noble sergeants and chaplains. Templars dubbed no knight so everyone who wanted to be a knight in words must already be a dubbed knight. They were equipped as heavy cavalry and had three or four horses and one or two squires. Väpnarna was not usually temples men but was hired for a fixed period. Sergeant engines were craftsmen and administrators and managed many of the Order's European estates. In korsfararländerna they fought alongside the Knights as light cavalry. Many of the Order's highest positions were reserved for sergeants. Sergeant Erna wore black or brown. Kaplan engines were the third temple Mr degree. They were anointed priests who saw to the Temple men's spiritual needs. All three degrees bar the Order of the Red Cross.
Demeanor and attire
It was Bernard of Clairvaux and founder Hugues de Payens who created the special behavior code of the Knights Templar, known as the Latin regulatory framework for modern historians . Its 72 clauses defined the ideal behavior for the Knights, such as what clothes they should wear and how many horses they had to have. The knights would eat in silence, only eat meat three times a week and not have physical contact of any kind with women, even from their own family. As the words grew, the number of guidelines to eventually cover several hundred.
The knights wore a white tunic with a red cross over the armor and a white jacket , also with a red cross. Sergeant Erna wore a black tunic with a red cross on the front and a black or brown mantle. According to regulations, the Knights always wear the mantle, they were not even allowed to eat or drink unless they wore it.
The red cross that the Templars bar was a symbol of martyrdom, and to die in combat was considered a great honor that would ensure a place in heaven. There was a mandatory order that the Order's warriors would never surrender unless the Order's flag had fallen, and even then they would primarily regroup into one of the other Christian orders. Only after all flags had fallen were allowed to leave the battlefield. This uncompromising attitude, along with their reputation for courage, their excellent training , and heavy armament made the Templars one of the most feared fighting forces in the Middle Ages.
The opening ceremony, known as the receptions, in words, was a deep bond and was conducted as a serious ceremony. Outsiders were not welcome to witness the ceremony, which helped to arouse suspicions inquisitors during the medieval trials. New members must voluntarily donate their wealth and possessions to the words and promise to live in poverty, chastity, and obedience gudfruktan. Most joined for life, although some were allowed to join for a limited time ( Arn Magnusson in 21 years). Sometimes a married man join if he had his wife's permission, but he was not allowed to wear the white mantle.
The story of persecution and sudden dissolution of the mysterious and powerful Knights Templar has attracted many other groups to use the alleged connections with the Knights Templar to enhance their own image and mystery (see eg Freemasons ). There is no clear historical link between the Knights Templar who were removed from the Catholic Church's rolls in 1309 with one of the modern organizations that have arisen. With the exception of the Scottish words appeared first in 1705. It was founded by the Duke of Orleans and seems to have been lost somewhere in the mists of the French Revolution. The next attempt was made by Bernard- Raymond Fabré - Palaprat who started a words with similar namn. 1804 which is widely regarded as the foundation of the tito 's ready with the same or similar names that exist today (as witness the words mentioned in connection with Breivikfallet ). In 1853, Napoleon III formally recognized the Knights Templar ( OSMTH ). When Napoleon III was forced to abdicate in 1871 came to an end, however, the imperial patronaget. It appears that the branch that we belong in Sweden and Scandinavia may have been founded as recently as 1932. However, this is under investigation and is still somewhat uncertain. Our words are acting according to the basic traditions of the medieval Templars, caring spirit from but do not claim that we are the Old Order's direct heir founded in 118 and dissolved by Pope Clement V 1312.
Grand Master ( Grand Masters)
1118-1136 Hugues the Payens
1136-1149 Robert de Craon
1149-1152 Everard des barres
1152-1153 Bernard de Tremalai
1153-1156 Andrew the Montbard
1156-1169 Bertrand de Blanche Fort
1169-1171 Philip the Naplous
1171-1179 Odon de St . Amand
1180-1184 Amaud the Toroge
1185-1189 Gerard de Ride Fort
1191-1193 Robert de Sable
1194-1200 Gilbert Erail
1201-1209 Philippe de le Plessis
1210-1219 Guillaume de Chartres
1219-1232 Pierre de Montaigue
1232-1244 Armand de Perigord
1244-1247 Richard de Bures
1247-1250 Guillaume de Sonnac
1250-1256 Renaud the Vichiers
1256-1273 Thomas Berard
1273-1291 Guillaume de Beaujeau
1291-1293 Thibaud Gaudin
1294-1314 Jacques de Molay
Charter of Transmission
1314-1324 John -Marc Larmenius
1324-1340 Thomas Theobald of Alexandria
1340-1349 Arnaud the Braque
1349-1357 Jean de Claremont
1357-1381 Bertrand du Guesclin
1381-1392 Bernard Arminiacus
1419-1451 Jean Arminiacus
1451-1472 Jean de Croy
1472-1478 Bernard Imbault
1478-1497 Robert Leononcourt
1497-1516 Galeatius the Salazar
1516-1544 Philippe Chabot
1544-1574 Gaspard the Galtiaco Tavanensis
1574-1615 Henri de Montmorency
1615-1651 Charles de Valois
1651-1681 Jacques Ruxellius the Granceio
1681-1705 Jacques Henri Duc de Duras
1705-1724 Philippe , Duc d'Orleans
1724-1737 Louis Augustus Bourbon
1737-1741 Louis Henri Bourbon Conde
1741-1776 Louis-Francois Boubon Conti
1776-1792 Louis Hercule Timoleon , Duc de Cosse Brissac
1792-1804 Claude- Mathieu Radix the Chavillon
Ordo Supremus Miltaris Temples Heirosolimytani (O.S.M.T.H.)
1804-1839 Bernard Fabre - Palaprat
1839-1840 Sir William Smith
1840-1850 Edward VII. d'Angleterre et George V. de Hanovre
1850-1866 Narcisse Valleray (Regent )
1866-1892 A.G.M. Vernois (Regent )
1892-1894 Josephin Peladan (Regent )
1894-1934 Secretariat International Reims
1934-1935 Conseil de Regence - Joseph Vandenberg
1935-1935 Theodore Covias (Regent )
1935-1942 Emile Clement Vandenberg (Regent )
1942-1960 Count Dom Antonio de Sousa Fontes (Regent )
1960 - pres. Fernando de Sousa Fontes (Regent )